Trilogy Funds Management Limited V Sullivan – Fungal indicators in conservation status assessment: the case of Quercus spp. Dejas (Spain) in the Midwest of the Iberian Peninsula
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Trilogy Funds Management Limited V Sullivan
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The Woodward Trilogy By Bob Woodward, Robert Costa
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Received: November 15, 2020 / Revised: December 9, 2020 / Accepted: December 10, 2020 / Published: December 14, 2020
Th Century Studios
(This article focuses on the special issue, What’s Finance Doing for Innovation? New Ways to Raise Capital for Small Companies)
The purpose of this study is to understand and address the widening valley of death in the clean energy sector due to financialization. We study the case of three new investment vehicles in the US energy sector (Active First Look Fund, Premier Coalition Prime Fund, and Climate Capital) that have defined their missions to bridge the clean energy death valley. that’s what they do. . Although the three cases focus on different stages of technology development, they make a consistent point that investors are not allocated investment opportunities (and risks). We argue that current financial intermediaries have failed to efficiently channel funding to entrepreneurs, as we highlight network fragmentation and information asymmetry among investor groups and firms. Therefore, we propose three intermediary functions that facilitate the intelligent and efficient flow of information between investors in the energy technology development cycle. Our findings highlight the emergence of collaborative platforms as a critical pillar for addressing financial challenges among new energy investments.
Energy innovation; financial innovation; Business Finance; death valley financial intermediaries; Energy Investment Ecosystem; shared platforms; Catalytic Capital Energy Innovation; financial innovation; Business Finance; death valley financial intermediaries; Energy Investment Ecosystem; shared platforms; Catalytic capital
Entrepreneurs seeking energy innovation must strive to bring long-term, sustainable investment resources from the laboratory to the global market. Entrepreneurs without established and long-term sources of capital face a lack of financing, often referred to as the “Valley of Death” (VoD) [1, 2]. Passing VoD is often the most difficult and uncertain challenge facing entrepreneurs in the energy sector, as expanding energy technology to full deployment requires large-scale, long-term investment before the technology becomes commercially viable. This has been fully confirmed [3, 4, 5]. However, without bridging VoD, the renewable energy industry cannot innovate fast enough to compete with conventional energy sources and drive the global energy transition .
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Investments from private equity (PE) and venture capital (VC) firms are playing a key role in supporting high-tech entrepreneurs in the expanding VoD path as they fuel innovation in technology- and science-driven industries such as semiconductors. and drugs . However, those same funds are exiting (or not fully committed to) the renewable energy sector. In the 2000s, a large amount of private equity funding was offered to workers and entrepreneurs in this field. In this era of “Clean Energy Investments 1.0,” VC/PE funds have invested in clean energy with similar returns to other industries. Unfortunately, clean energy technology requires a large-scale, long-term commitment of capital, so there has been a large and painful retreat from venture capital after this period of investment. Between 2006 and 2011, during the so-called “Clean Energy Investment 2.0” era, VC firms lost more than 50% of their $25 billion investments . Thus, new investments from VC/PE funds in the US clean energy market decreased from $5 billion in 2006 to less than $2 billion per year in 2011, and the share of clean energy investments in VC investments decreased from 16.8%. %. 7.6% in 2011-2016 [9, 10].
While investing in clean energy over the past two decades may seem like a warning to investors to avoid the sector, we believe that should not be the case. Instead, investors should understand that the key lesson here is that investors are not connecting to clean energy opportunities with the right financing vehicles, investment products and asset managers to ensure the long-term balance of energy needs. Capital flowing into these cleanup projects mainly comes from traditional VC/PE fund structures, and this capital is often too expensive to support the long-term development of these projects . Hull, Lo and Stein (2019)  argue that the VC/PE industry has historically had a disproportionate impact on technological innovation, particularly in industries requiring long staffing. As a result, many investors have come to the conclusion that investing in clean energy may be unprofitable and possibly unprofitable, which has led fiduciary investors away from this asset class [12, 13, 14]. On the other hand, investors with a long-term investment perspective, such as philanthropic funds, institutional investors, corporate strategic investors and strategic investors, are more suitable to support renewable energy projects, but not enough to meet the needs of investment vehicles. these are investors. .
The lesson of Investing in Clean Energy 1.0 and 2.0 shows that traditional forms of financial intermediation do not adequately meet the needs of clean energy financing due to a lack of effective communication between companies and investors. Today’s investment policies that seek to de-risk clean energy investments fail to understand the unique risks that exist at each stage of the technology or project development cycle . One of the most prominent proposals for a new investment model that addresses this gap is the MegaFund Low model, a collection of various biomedical development projects [7, 11], but this concept is in the refining sector (or biomedicine, its main target industry). ) for practical reasons. Future policies on technology investment require a better understanding of “what investors are willing to invest in risky technologies and what policies can encourage them to do so on a large scale”  (p. 7). Energy companies and projects need a balanced mix of capital, which should be more patient and invest more in late-stage companies, while finding the many innovative and pioneering companies that need support. What barriers prevent potential investors from coming in and how can we direct these investors to the right entrepreneurs.
Therefore, in this study, we adopt a new approach to understanding and addressing the expansion of VoD in the energy sector using organizational perspectives and propose a new role for financial intermediaries to better support energy innovation. The paper’s arguments are supported by advisory services offered by three emerging investment vehicles in the US energy sector, the First Look Fund for Activation, the Prime Coalition’s Prime Fund, and Aligned Climate Capital. We examine how and why new investment vehicle structures are being built to support groups of investors not widely used in energy finance.
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Our main findings and conclusions are threefold. First, we find that bringing a new energy technology to market requires catalytic capital that can mobilize a diverse pool of investors. Investors are often unsure whether late-stage capital will be available to bring promising technologies and companies to market, and we’ve found that this uncertainty limits the amount of capital they’re willing to invest in early-stage companies. Therefore, an important role of catalyst capital is to seed, scale and power projects and start them from early stages. We also found organizational barriers that prevent potential and suitable investors from deploying such catalyst capital, and barriers include the lack of clarity in investment preferences of capital providers and investment management services. For example, the relatively short-term investment model followed by most VC/PE funds limits their leverage in these types of investments.
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