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Amusement Events And Recreation Award 2010 Pay Rates – A Sustainable Approach to the Management and Assessment of Underwater Cultural Heritage: New Perspectives from the Tectonic Project

Assessing and considering the wider impact of sport-tourism events: A review of the research agenda on sustainability and strategic planning factors

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Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba 305-8569, Japan

Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 15 June 2020 / Accepted: 16 June 2020 / Published: 18 June 2020

(This article explores the special issue of Urban and Rural Event Tourism and Sustainability: Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts)

The business event sector expects a large economic impact such as MICE (Meeting (M), Incentive Travel (I), Convention (C), Exhibition and Event (E). , greenhouses including the level of gas emissions, carbon offset, etc. According to environmental guidelines for the event updated by the Ministry of Environment of Japan in 2019, goods must be purchased after considering the environmental burden items and the life cycle stage of the life cycle assessment (LCA). In this study, the business event sector, transportation Moreover, we assessed the participants’ accommodation, food and beverages, souvenirs, shopping, entertainment, and tourism expenditure from abroad. footprint (CFP) from consumption data using input-output analysis. evaluated. In this study, the total CFP was 804.8 t-CO2eq (M, I, C- ICCA (international convention-based convention of the International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA)), E) and transport (transp, 56.0%). . ) contributed the most, planning and preparation (Plan, 13.2%), accommodation (Acc, 12.0%), souven ir, shopping, entertainment, sightseeing (SE, 10.1%), and food and drinks (FB, 7.9%). In the case of M , I , C-JNTO (Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) convention-based international conference), E, ​​total CFP was 1714.4 t-CO2eq, contributed by transportation (transp, 54.3%) . Most, planning and preparation (Plan, 14.3%), accommodation (Acc, 12.9%), food and drink (FB, 9.2%), souvenirs, shopping, entertainment and sightseeing (SE, 8.2% ). From this result, it was found that the CFP of this sector is due to transportation, planning, preparation, accommodation, food and drinks and souvenirs. Sustainability guidelines recommend that the committee stock products that contribute to the CFP below, and it is considered good practice to provide participants with a choice of products and services such as Providers themselves must take action to provide lower CFP products. Assessing changes in consumer goods in future studies can help quantify environmental and sustainability impacts.

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Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); carbon footprint (CFP); input-output analysis; business events; incentive travel meeting; convention; Exhibitions and programs; MOUSE; Business Tourism Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); carbon footprint (CFP); input-output analysis; business events; incentive travel meeting; convention; Exhibitions and programs; MOUSE; Business tourism

The United Nations (UN) declared 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development [1]. Sustainable tourism is defined as “tourism that fully takes into account the current and future economic, social and environmental impacts while meeting the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and the communities that host them”. This applies to all types of tourism in all types of destinations [2]. Tourism is a temporary break from everyday life and related events and then moving to another place. This description can be applied to travel for individuals and business travelers. Business events are classified as meetings (M), incentive travel (I), conventions (C), exhibitions and events (E ). These are collectively called MICE and include all international business events. For such a business, tourism does not include sports tourism, which is a large international event where spectators gather. According to the Japan Tourism Agency (JTA), one of the authorities responsible for tourism in Japan, the three expectations of the MICE area as business tourism is to create opportunities for business innovation, support economic expansion to various areas, and increase competitiveness. Country and City [3]. In this way, the Japanese government aims to develop the economy of the tourism sector and MICE, anticipating the high economic impact [4]. To investigate the ripple effects of the economy include countries and regions that emphasize the MICE sector, such as the United States (US, 2012) [5], Great Britain (UK, 2013) [6], and Denmark (US, 2013). Conduct research. 2012) [7], Australia (2015) [8], Singapore (2016) [9] and Thailand (2018) [10].

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Regarding the sustainability of an event, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 20121 [11] was established in 2012 as an international standard. The cycle stages of event management and event activities (including the products and services involved) start from research, conception and planning to implementation, review and post-event activities. The main stakeholders are event organizers, owners, workers, supply chains, stakeholders, participants, regulatory bodies and the public. Sustainability guidelines related to MICE have also received attention. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has published Green Meetings Guide (2009) [12] and Sustainable Events Guide (2012). [13] Referring to this, Singapore (2013) [14], Thailand (2015) [15] and Taiwan (2016) [16] have created their own sustainability guidelines. Taiwan guidelines present a checklist of requirements for visitors. It requires all stakeholders to provide information on their Carbon Footprint (CFP). In Japan, the Ministry of Environment published “Recommendations for Environmentally Friendly Meetings” [17] in 2008. Tokyo has also created its own sustainability guidelines (2019) [18], but carbon management includes carbon neutrality, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, carbon offsets, etc. . However, some of these global guidelines include the need for carbon management as a positive contribution to climate change, highlighting the importance of clarifying the environmental impact and business for each stakeholder. Adhering to these guidelines includes several positive actions.

The Paris Agreement was adopted in 2015 with the agreement of 195 UN countries [19]. The UNEP Annual Emissions Gap Report 2019 reports that global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions need to be reduced by 7.6% annually in the coming decade [20]. In Japan, the Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) is targeted to decrease by 26% by 2030 compared to 2013 [21]. The long-term strategy in the Paris Agreement announced that it aims to reduce emissions by 80% by 2050 [22]. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the universal language of sustainability. SDG Kompas, which tracks the approach to the SDGs, introduced Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool that can be used to map high-impact areas in the value chain, identifying issues that should be prioritized [23]. The world’s tourism industry has also begun to implement the tourism SDGs, with the aim of contributing to the SDGs [24].

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Meyer et al. It has been stated that climate change [25] is a potential problem for MICE. Serafin et al. studied the impact of climate change and other environmental issues on the MICE sector in relation to international and domestic tourism [26]. The carbon footprint (CFP) calculated in the Olympic and Paralympic London Games has been referenced and used in various subsequent events [27]. 91% of CFPs in international conferences are caused by participant transportation [28].

In Japan, case studies have been conducted for sports events [29], music concerts [30], and school festivals [31]. Evaluation of large-scale events requires obtaining large amounts of information. Therefore, a simple evaluation method is needed and a method that uses the basic unit of the event should be developed [32]. Eco-Pro Evaluation (2010)

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